Tara Cameron introduces us to a ground-breaking series that brings together the fighting styles of boxing, kickboxing and MMA in one show.
Runtime: 30 minutes
Whawhai - Māori culture - Netflix
Māori culture is the culture of the Māori of New Zealand (an Eastern Polynesian people) and forms a distinctive part of New Zealand culture. Within the Māori community, and to a lesser extent throughout New Zealand as a whole, the word Māoritanga is often used as an approximate synonym for Māori culture, the Māori suffix -tanga being roughly equivalent to the qualitative noun ending “-ness” in English. There have been three distinct but overlapping cultural eras—before widespread European contact, the 1800s in which Māori began interacting with European visitors and settlers, and the modern era since the beginning of the 20th century. Culture in the modern era has been shaped by increasing urbanisation, closer contact with New Zealanders of European descent (or Pākehā) and revival of traditional practices. Traditional arts make up a large section of New Zealand art and include whakairo (carving), raranga (weaving), kapa haka (group performance), whaikorero (oratory), and tā moko (tattoo). Practitioners often follow the techniques of their ancestors, but today Māoritanga also includes contemporary arts such as film, television, poetry and theatre. Pre-European Māori stories and legends were handed down orally and through weavings and carvings. Some surviving Te Toi Whakairo, or carving, is over 500-years-old. Tohunga Whakairo are the great carvers—the master craftsmen. The Māori believed that the gods created and communicated through the master craftsmen. Carving has been a tapu art, subject to the rules and laws of tapu. Pieces of wood that fell aside as the carver worked were never thrown away, neither were they used for the cooking of food. Women were not permitted near Te Toi Whakairo. The Māori language is known natively as te reo Māori, or shortened to te reo (literally, the language). At the beginning of the twentieth century, it looked like te reo as well as other aspects of Māori life would disappear. In the 1980s however, government-sponsored schools taught te reo, educating those of European descent as well as Māori.
Whawhai - Moa-hunter period - Netflix
Researchers often label the time from about 1280 to about 1450 the “Moa-hunter period” - after the moa, the large flightless bird that formed a large part of the diet of the early settlers. Nine different moa species occurred commonly in the south-east and east of the South Island. In the far South it was too cold to grow the kūmara sweet potato . Large quantities of tī tubers were eaten that were slow-cooked in large umu or hāngi (earth ovens) to get rid of poison and to produce a slightly sweet pulp. Shellfish, fish, sharks and seals were also common foods. Native dogs (kurī) and rats were brought from the Pacific Islands. The introduction of rats undoubtedly had more impact on New Zealand wildlife than any other organism apart from humans. The dogs were used for hunting but also as food. The Society Island colonists explored New Zealand to find suitable stone for tool-making. The main stone source areas included Mayor Island, Taupo and Kerikeri for obsidian (volcanic glass); prospectors soon found pounamu (greenstone or jade) and argillite (pakohe) resources in the South Island in the Reefton and Nelson areas. Stone served in all aspects of Polynesian life: from chopping wood to cutting and slicing food, as anchors for waka and fishing nets, as hangi stones for retaining the heat in a slow-cooking earth oven, as drills using chert, and for stone clubs. Archaeological evidence in early proto-Māori settlements, especially at the Wairau Bar that was intensively studied by Roger Duff, shows some typical East Polynesian cultural practices, including burial methods and the use of hangi (earth ovens). Two Polynesian artifacts link early settlers to Polynesia. One, a turret shell only found in the South Pacific islands, most notably in the Society Islands, has been reworked into a small chisel found at Wairau Bar and dated to about 1300. The other is a 6 cm long Polynesian pearl fishing lure found at Tairua in 1962. This lure has been reliably dated to the early- to mid-14th century. It was found at a typical small coastal moa-hunters' site which has been interpreted as an itinerant hunting camp (whakaruruhau). The discovery of Mayor Island obsidian on the Kermadec Islands, halfway between New Zealand and Polynesia, strongly suggests return journeys were made. The new environment offered challenges to the settlers. Its cold climate meant that tropical staple crops needed careful cultivation to survive, and some failed to grow locally. Kūmara was an important crop that arrived with the Polynesian settlers. Much of the activity to produce kūmara became ritualised – it was even associated with Rongomātāne (Rongo), a high-ranking atua (god). Kūmara featured in some whakataukī (proverbs): “Kaore te kūmara e kōrero mo tōna māngaro” (the kūmara does not speak of its own sweetness) encouraged people to be modest. However, there were also new opportunities. Māori learned to use local resources like pounamu, native timber, harakeke and the abundant birdlife, producing practical tools or food, as well as beautiful ornaments and items of clothing.
Seasonal activities included gardening, fishing and the hunting of birds. Main tasks were segregated for men and women, but there were also a lot of group activities involving food gathering and food cultivation.
Whawhai - References - Netflix